Material & Methods

طرق البحث تمكن باحث آخر من تنفيذ بحث مماثل بنفس الطريقة بالظبط

البشر

Setting, sampling, recruitment, and inclusion & exclusion criteria

Setting, ethics approval and inclusion & exclusion criteria

Kim  et al. (2017). Diabetes mellitus and the incidence of hearing loss: a cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 46: 717-726.

SETTING

The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study is a cohort study of men and women 18 years of age or older who underwent a comprehensive annual or biennial health examination at the clinics of the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Screening Center in Seoul and Suwon, South Korea, from 2002 to 2014.  Over 80% of participants were employees of various companies and local governmental organizations and their spouses. In South Korea, the Industrial Safety and Health Law requires annual or biennial health-screening exams of all employees, offered free of charge. The remaining participants voluntarily purchased screening examinations at the health-screening centre.

INCLUSION & EXCLUSION CRITERIA

The present analysis included all study participants with at least one follow-up visit between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2014 (n = 273 794; Figure 1). We excluded participants who had any of the following conditions at baseline: abnormal hearing tests, defined as a pure-tone air conduction average of thresholds from 0.5–2 kHz above 25 dB in both right and left ears (n = 10 928); self-reported history of hearing loss (n = 1620); or self-reported history of cancer (n = 7012). We further excluded participants with missing baseline data on fasting glucose (n = 11), hearing tests (n = 452) or any other relevant adjustment covariates (n = 470). The final sample was thus 253 301 participants (105 816 women and 147 485 men).

ETHICS APPROVAL

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, which waived the requirement for informed consent, as we used only de-identified data obtained during regular health-screening exams.

Chiba  et al. (2020). Prevalence and characterization of asthma in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 146: 307-314

SETTING

This retrospective study was conducted across 10 hospitals affiliated with Northwestern Medicine, one of the largest health systems in Chicago and surrounding Illinois suburbs. Study patients were identified by automated chart review using Northwestern Medicine’s Enterprise Data Warehouse, an electronic repository of inpatient and outpatient health records of more than 6.6 million distinct patients (from Illinois and surrounding states) seen within the health system. 

INCLUSION & EXCLUSION CRITERIA 

Patients of all ages (including 2 patients <18 years old) were included in this study if they were evaluated between March 1, 2020, and April 15, 2020, within Northwestern Medicine and had received the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis code for COVID-19 (U07.1). Presumed COVID-19 patients (U07.2) without laboratory RT-PCR were not included in this study. Of the 1837 patients identified with COVID-19, 295 were excluded because the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was not confirmed. Mortality in our study cohort was determined up to April 30, 2020.

ETHICS APPROVAL

This study was approved by the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine’s Institutional Review Board.

Animals

Chockalingam et al (2019). Evaluation of Immunocompetent Urinary Tract Infected Balb/C Mouse Model For the Study of Antibiotic Resistance Development Using Escherichia Coli CFT073 Infection. Antibiotics (Basel) 8.

Female Balb/c mice 8–10 weeks old were purchased from Taconic Biosciences (Derwood, MD, USA) and were housed and maintained according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th Edition, under an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved protocol in the AAALAC accredited Animal Program of the White Oak Federal Research Center. Mice were provided with autoclaved feed (Prolab RM 3500, LabDiet, St. Louis, MO, USA) and were permitted food and water ad libitum. Animals were acclimated to the facility for six days before commencement of experiments. Individual mice were randomly assigned to treatment groups. At the initiation of each experiment, animals were socially housed according to facility standards in an animal cage with a wire mesh grid placed at the bottom, to avoid drug carry-over by coprophagic behavior.

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Pierre et al (2019). Impact of aging on inflammatory and immune responses during elastin peptide-induced murine emphysema. American journal of physiology Lung cellular and molecular physiology 316: L608-L620.

C57BL/6J female mice (6 wk old and 15 mo old) purchased from Harlan Sprague-Dawley were housed in an animal facility that was maintained at 22–26°C with 40–69% humidity and a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle. Animals were fed with a commercial diet and received water ad libitum. Animals were humanely cared for, and all animal experiments were approved by the University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were carried out in accordance with institutional guidelines and regulations. 

Da Pozzo  et al (2018). Antioxidant and Antisenescence Effects of Bergamot Juice. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2018: 9395804

C57BL/6J mice were taken from Envigo (Milan, Italy). All procedures were performed according to European (EEC Directive 2010/63) and Italian (D.L. 4 March 2014 n. 26) legislation. Animals were housed in cages with free access to standard food pellets and water on a 12 h light/dark cycle.

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المواد

تشمل المواد الكيماوية والبيولوجية والخلايا والعينات على اختلاف أنواعها والحيوانات

إذا لم تتعدد أصناف مختلفة من نفس الصنف تذكر تحت عنوان المواد

لا تذكر المواد الكيماوية العامة والعادية

الحيوانات

تذكر تحت عنوان ثانوي

يذكر صنفهم المحدد وجنسهم وعمرهم وظروف معيشتهم وأكلهم وشربهم

البشر

subjects لا يشار إليهم بكلمة

‒ المشاركون

‒المتطوعون

‒المرضى

‒إلخ

أمثلة

الحيوانات والمواد

ملخص المحاضرة

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Analysis of the information content of the introduction

Examples of information content analysis

The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey. Aia P et al (2016). PloS one 11: e0149806

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to public health worldwide. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 9.6 million people developed TB globally and about 480,000 were infected with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains. MDR-TB is a form of TB with in-vitro resistance to the two most potent anti-TB drugs, isoniazid, and rifampicin, with or without resistance to any other drugs [1]. Inadequate use of anti-TB drugs favours the emergence of drug resistance, which may then be transmitted to others. MDR-TB patients require a treatment which commonly lasts at least 20 months and employs drugs that are difficult to procure and more toxic and expensive than those used to treat drug-susceptible TB [2,3,4].

Resistance to anti-TB drugs is considered an emerging problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but a reliable estimate of the prevalence of MDR-TB in the country is not available. Studies performed by the Queensland Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (QMRL) on isolates from patients of the South Fly District (Western Province) seeking cross border care in Australia suggest high rates of MDR-TB: Gilpin et al.[5] reported 25% of MDR-TB in new cases and Simpson et al. [6] reported a similar finding (26%). Data from the PNG Institute of Medical Research (Ballif, Harino et al.) [7] reported 5.2% of MDR-TB in a cohort of TB patients from Madang PNG, the majority of whom were new cases. A study from Kikori in Gulf Province of PNG reported 9% (3 of 32 TB cases) of rifampicin resistant cases among TB patients (Cross, Coles et al.) [8] and another one reported MDR-TB in 2.8% of all cases tested in three sites (Ley, Harino et al) [9]. These studies were small in nature and not designed to obtain population-representative data, therefore a large representative survey was needed to determine the real burden of anti-TB drug resistance in PNG.

The survey aimed to provide to the national TB control programme (NTP) and its partners reliable information on the prevalence and risk factors for MDR-TB in the country to better target prevention and control efforts. The findings of this study are relevant beyond the country’s borders as these add to the current knowledge about the burden of MDR-TB in the region.

 

 

 

Study area

Study problem

Present knowledge

Unknown (gap)

Inadequate or controversial 

Hypothesis or suggestion

Aim

 

 

The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey. Aia P et al (2016). PloS one 11: e0149806

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to public health worldwide. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 9.6 million people developed TB globally and about 480,000 were infected with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains. MDR-TB is a form of TB with in-vitro resistance to the two most potent anti-TB drugs, isoniazid, and rifampicin, with or without resistance to any other drugs [1]. Inadequate use of anti-TB drugs favours the emergence of drug resistance, which may then be transmitted to others. MDR-TB patients require a treatment which commonly lasts at least 20 months and employs drugs that are difficult to procure and more toxic and expensive than those used to treat drug-susceptible TB [2,3,4].

Resistance to anti-TB drugs is considered an emerging problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but a reliable estimate of the prevalence of MDR-TB in the country is not available. Studies performed by the Queensland Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (QMRL) on isolates from patients of the South Fly District (Western Province) seeking cross border care in Australia suggest high rates of MDR-TB: Gilpin et al.[5] reported 25% of MDR-TB in new cases and Simpson et al. [6] reported a similar finding (26%). Data from the PNG Institute of Medical Research (Ballif, Harino et al.) [7] reported 5.2% of MDR-TB in a cohort of TB patients from Madang PNG, the majority of whom were new cases. A study from Kikori in Gulf Province of PNG reported 9% (3 of 32 TB cases) of rifampicin resistant cases among TB patients (Cross, Coles et al.) [8] and another one reported MDR-TB in 2.8% of all cases tested in three sites (Ley, Harino et al) [9]. These studies were small in nature and not designed to obtain population-representative data, therefore a large representative survey was needed to determine the real burden of anti-TB drug resistance in PNG.

The survey aimed to provide to the national TB control programme (NTP) and its partners reliable information on the prevalence and risk factors for MDR-TB in the country to better target prevention and control efforts. The findings of this study are relevant beyond the country’s borders as these add to the current knowledge about the burden of MDR-TB in the region.

تمرينات مستقلة

أختر على الأقل ثلاثة من المقدمات المنشور الموجودة على اليمين

حملها وقم بتحليلها كما ورد في المخاضرة والأمثلة

فكر في الطريقة التي اتبعها الباحثون في تبرير دراستهم